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Monuments of Assam


 

Monuments of Assam


Assam is the easternmost State of India having a good number of monuments belonging to the medieval p3rio i.e., 5h-6th century A.D. to 19th century A.D. It maintained cultural relation with the main land. The present Bangladesh and the erstwhile West Pakistan was a part of India before the partition of the country and hence all cultural contacts with India Assam maintained with this part. It also maintained cultural contact with Burma. Hence , the influence on Assam’s architecture from outside.


Pre- Āhom period

The history of architecture in Assam on the basis of the material available can be pushed back to the Gupta period 5th-6th century i.e., the Varma dynasty of the Kamarupa. Not a single temple belonging to the Pre-Ahom period 913th century) is in standing condition. Wherever temple existed in the period, we see only heaps if ruins over which in the Ahom-Koch temples were constructed. The heaps of ruins are full of various broken parts of the stone temples. The scattered components of the temple and palacial remains on stylistic ground to C.13th century. Standing temples, however, can be seen all over the State, which are datable to the late medieval period i.e., 16th to 18th century.


The reasons of the total damage of the temples belonging to the Pre-Ahom period are more than one. Firstly, there must have been some large scale earthquake to crumble down the beautiful temples. It is possible that in the great earthquake of 1896, some buildings and monuments which helped in the growth of vegetation over the monuments which helped in the growth o vegetation over the monuments which helped in decaying the monuments and falling to the ground . There are quite a few inscriptional references to the erection of temples in the Pre-Ahom Assam. He first reference occurs in the Nilanchal inscription of Surendra Varman ( Mahendra Varman) datable to 5th century A.D. It refers to the existence of cave temple in Kamakshya hill, which is also called Nilanchal hill.


But strangely , there is no trace of any cave temple at the site of the Nilanchal inscription. Only the trace of a disturbed natural cave be found. It is possible that the natural cave was improved to be used as a temple in the line of Udayagiri cave temple of central India.
           

The existing temple ruins cannot prove that Assam in the beginning developed an independent architectural style . But we have proof to show that architectural style in Assam was very much influenced by the Gupts architectural style of the mid India . P.C. Sarma rightly says that the bold scroll floral design seen at Kamakshya is the proto-type scroll of 4th / 5th century of Bhimra2. However, we do not have any proof to show that the scroll is over the plans of that period. At Da-parvatia near Tezpur the ruined temple at Da-parvatia with the beautiful sculptured figures of Ganga and Yamuna, bearing Gupta characteristic feature is a priceless art work. However, this masterpiece was in all probability, an import from the Ganga-Yamuna valley.


In Assam , i.e. Kamarupa, three dynasties flourished in the Pre-Ahom period. These are Varman, rulers were contemporaneous of the Gupts Kings . When the Gupta dynasty, due to the inner conflicts amongst the kings , started falling , the art activities also had to face obstacles. Kamarupa, the bordering Kingdom of the Gupta Empire under the Varman rupers, however. Continued the Gupta art style. Some influence of Gupts art of architecture even could be seen in the work o the days of the Salastambha rulers. For instance, the the Majgaon temple dvara ( Gharpora cuburi), Tezpur , depicts the the figures of Ganga and Yamuna, the river Goddess, so popular in the Gupta art and architecture. However, the plinth if the Da-parvatia ruined temple which consists of garbhagriha and mandapa is very simple and depicts Gupta architectural style clearly .


From almost the beginning of the Varman dynasty i.e., 5th century o the end of the Salastambha dynasty i.e. , 10 century the architectural activities can be traced systematically in and around Tezpur. This observation of P.C. Sarma holds good. The ruined temples at Bamuni Pahar, Majgaon, architectural components preserved in the ole Park , Tezpur bear testimony to this fact.


As in many cases plinth area is not traceable, we are depend on the style of architectural components, such as, dvarasiraptti, dvarasakhas, dehali, sikhara, angasikara, stambha sirsa, amalaka etc. to determine their age. The depiction of miniature sikhara depicted in some sakhas as dvaras of broken temples also help us in this matter.


Sarma has said that the Post Gupta architectural developments in Assam are more akin to central India than Orissa. The sikhara of this period was domical like that of Khajuraho and not in Orissa, which are pyramidal in shape. It is, in fact, very risky to make a conclusive remark , as there is not a standing temple, of this period in the state. Sometimes, it appears, the sikhara of the temples of Assam bear similarity with eastern Orissa, Bengal or even northern Indian style, in addition to central Indian style. But certainly it has no relation with the southern Indian or Deccan style. In so far as the sikharas are concerned . Else where we remarked that the style of the sikharas of the temple of Assam resemble the sikharas of the Orissa (central Orissa) temple alone. Now, it requires revision . Because we do not find Orissan influence on the art of Assam. This can also be applicable on architecture too.


The use of raised platform for erection of a temple complex was not very popular. But there are some instances. For example, the main ruined temples at Bamuni Pahar has this element. Majority of the temples belonging to this period have garbhagriha with lower level , i.e. the floor levels of the garbhagriha is lower than those of the mandapas and flight of steps are their for climbing down . Through there are instances of garbhagrihas of temples, outside Assam, yet their numbers are not many having lower level.


As in other parts of the country, in Assam too use of bricks and stones for temple construction were known. The temples of Assam belonging to the Pre- Ahom period certainly bear the clear Indo-Aryan style . But, because of its some peculiar styles, designs etc. Sarma4 wants to treat the style in question as “Separate group of the Indo-Aryan style”. Central Indian architecture style, no doubt, was the soul of the Pre-Ahom temple architecture style in Assam. But , in so far ass gajathara motif is concerned, Deccan influence on our temple style is noticed. R.D. Banerji even has noticed influence of western Chalukyan style, nay Javanese influence or he architectural style of Assam. There may be influence of other architectural style including the indigenous additions in the Pre-Ahom architecture in Assam but basically , it is the product of the Indo-Aryan style. So, we cannot agree with Sarma, who says that Pre-Ahom architecture style may be named as Kamarupi style. For , regional variations in the style of art and architecture is not new thing. It is bound to be there.

Ahom dynasty

The Pala rule in Assam came to an end by the end or 12th century A.D. The Taies, came to be known as Ahoms later, entered into the Brahmaputra Valley in the beginning of 13th century from upper Burma. They ruled The brahmaputra valley from the second quarter of 13th century to the second quarter of 19th century. During this period besides Ahom, the Koch, Kachari, Chutia and Jaintia ruled different parts of Assam. Except the Jaintia, who ruled in the Jaintia hills of present Meghalaya, other dynasties had their architectural activities extensively.

The Ahoms first established their capital at Caraideo uner the leadership of Cukapha, the first Ahom ruler in the Brahmaputra valley. But in the beginning of the Ahom rule, due to political instability, they could not concentrate on the art and architectural activities.

The architectural activities of the Ahoms can be divided into two phases. Nothing remains of the first phase now, through we get literary references to their existence. The Garakhia temple at Nazira town near Sivasagar , built by Pratap Singha (1603-1641 A..) is the only extant temple of this phase. This monument representing the early phase bear Islamic trait, which became so popular through out the country by that time. So, there is nothing to be surprised about on it.

The second phase of the temple architecture began with the enthronement o Gadadhar Singha in 1681 A.D. By brining earthen image i.e., icon of Goddess Durga, Pratap Singha first introduced Durga Puja during Ahom rule in Assam and showed his allegiance to Hinduism unlike his predecessors, who , though believed in secularism, yet did not worship hindu divinity. But Gadadhar Singha by erection of Hindu temples concolidated his inclination towards Hinduism- the example consolidated his inclination towards Hindusim- the example of whom was followd by his successors till the end of Ahom rule . But he did maintain a link with the tai religion and faith. There is no doubt about the Islamic influence over the architectural form during his rule. After him Rudra Singha followed the tradition of erection of Hindu temple and during his time temple architecture reached its standardization and his followers carried his ideals and adaptation of the ‘Nilacala type’ in the construction of Jai Dol. Though Islamic influence is seen, the indigenous do-cala typed gained prominence.

The temple architecture of the Ahoms reached its zenith during the period of Siva Singha. The Siva temple at Sivasagar is the tallest (40 metre high) amongst the existing historical monuments in Assam. After Siva Singha, his successors we notice secularism in arhitecture. But they are temples of smaller in stature and mostly work of renovation and restoration. In Guwahati or North Guwahati almost all the temples were constructed over the ruins of the temples built in the Pre-Ahom days. After Rajeswar Singha the temple architecture lost its reputation  and started declining . The Chandra Sekhar temple at Umananda and the Baneswar temple in Guwahati, which portray the declining picture of the art and architecture, were built by the Chandra Kanta Singha 91811-1818 A.D.) the last Ahom ruler of Assam.

Koch dynasty


The Koch, who were very powerful enough and once conquered even gargaon, the capital of the Ahoms, held sway in the lower part of Assam and North Bengal. During the days of the king Naranarayana and his brother General Chilarai, the glory of the dynasty , reached its zenith from all sides, including art and literature . naranarayana in 565 A.D. built the Kamakshya temple on hill of Nilachal hill . In fact , the temple was constructed over ruins and site of the older pre-Ahom temples with Koch expertise, which was followed by te Ahoms in building temples in the subsequent years . The architect of the temple evolved a new architectural style, no where seen in India, which became popular in Ahom architecture later on. This style is named as ‘Nilacala type’ by R.M. Nath. Kamakshya is the earliest dated monument in its complete form in Assam. The second and important temple was constructed at Hajo in 1583 A.D. Like Kamakshya temple it is also a renovation work but dedicated to Visnu (or Buddha?) It consists of Kamakshya temple. But it is smaller that Kamakshya temple.


Chutia dynasty

The Chutias ruled in the Sadiya region in the North-east corner of Assam on the north bank of the Brahmaputra. The cultured tribe erected the Tamresvari temple at Sadiya in the Dibrugarh district. This temple popularly known as Sakta Goddess Kesaikhati is no more now. During the great earthquake it fell down and the Brahmaputra eroded the site completely so that we do not find any trace of this monument. However, we get a clear picture from the report of colonel ‘Hanny’ and Dalton, who visited the site in the middle of 19th century . Bloch also reported it along with a photograph of the ruined temple. This simple stone temple must have lost its sikhara in some earthquake and later copper-sheets were put it. So, it was called Tamresvari ( tamracopper) . Sarma wants to opine that the ruined temple at Malinithan was the work of the Chutias. The architectural style of the ruined temple bear the Indo-Aryan traits and the sculptures bear the mark of the late variety of the eastern Indian medieval school, which was not known to the Chutia artisants. Therefore, this temple erected at the foot of the hills near Likabali boardering Arunachal Pradesh, must have been the work of the artisans from the Brahmaputra valley. Remnants of such a temple near Jonai were noticed by us few years back. Though these temples were included in the Chutia kingdom, they must have been built by importing artisans from the west of their kingdom. Stylistically, the ruins may belong to C. 13th / 14th century and not 12th century as said by sarma.

Near Bhakuakhana in the village of Bhagharchuk was noticed a temple assigned to the Chutia period by C.D. Tripathi. Sarma has not fully, however, supported tripathi. The temple of Maghnowa in the North-Lakhimpur district fell in Chutia kingdom, but Sarma has said that it cannot be conclusively proved to be the work of the Chutia artisans, as there is no inscriptional or literary evidence. But it can be assumed to be so.

Jaintia & Kachari dynasties

The Kacharis who are known to be Dimasa Kacharis had their first capital at Dimapur, and second capital of Maibong, while the last and third capital at Khaspur, in the Barak valley. In the first capital at Dimapur in the Rajbari area, we see the remains of the brick work with Islamic evidence. The 16th century capital 9second) of the kacharis , on the bank of the river Mahur Shows a monolithic hut or rock-cut  temple of the days of harish Chandra Narayan (1971 A.D.) . This monument trdrmblrd s typical Bengal do-cala structure . This is the solitary example of monolithic structure in Assam.

The Khaspur monuments includes two gate house, and two storied baro uwari, which are secular monuments, and three temples dedicated to Siva, Lakshmi and kali ( Ranachandi) . All of these monuments bear the traits of do-cala Bengal type cottage. The temple at Sivatila near Sonai also bear the Bengal type do-cala roof. Sarma says that Sivatila was the starting point of the real kachari architecture formula under heavy Bengal influence, but because of the decline of he Kachari rule , it came to an end. Recently , a hindu brick temple of the same late medieval Islamic style has come to light near Dauki in Meghalaya. It was constructed during the Jaintia rule.

Secular architecture

It will be justified to mention about the secular building architecture of Assam in brick. Compared to the religious – secular buildings are quite small in number. Only three such monuments are worth mentioning . They are Rang ghar and Tolatalghar at Sibsagar and Kareng ghar at Gargaon. The Rang ghar, means pleasure house, where from the royal family members enjoyed games on important occasions. This two-storeyed brick building apsidal in shape bear Islamic style. The talatal ghar is a garrison for army having secret passage at the time of emergency. It is also built in Moghal style. The Kareng gha is a royal palace bearing South-Asiatic style. All these brick works were built by the Ahom kings.

Muslim architecture

Since apart from the Hindu monuments and secular buildings of the historical period, there are few Muslim monuments o antiquarian value in Assam , it will be aught to briefly notice them. It is a known fact that though the Mughal tried their best to conquer Assam, yet due to the strong resistance of the Ahoms, could not occupy Assam. But in Western Assam, through which they made constant effort to advance towards middle Assam along the Brahmaputra, three Muslim monuments were constructed. One is Rangamati Mosque near Gauripur, datable to 15th / 16th century built by Hussain Shah Nawab of Gour. The other two are on the South bank of the Brahmaputra , known as Pach Piran Durgah and Mirijumlar Masjid datable to 17th century . Mention must be made o the Mosque at Poa Mocca ( Hajo) datable to 17th century . The Dargah at Saraguri Capari in Sibsagar district is also taken as the Dargah of Ajan Pir, although the historicity of this legendary Fakir is yet to be conclusively proved. These monuments bear typical Muslim character.

Conservation

The conservation of all these monuments has become a challenging task. The Archaeological Survey of India has declared under the existing law. Subsequently, the Government of Assam , at the advice of the Central Government opened a Department of Archaeology with a view of protecting more monuments in the State, as it was not possible for the Archaeological Survey o India to cope with they require immediate protection. 

The climatic condition o Assam is very humid. Compared to other parts of India, here rainfall is very high, which makes the climate wet. In this limate growth of vegeration becomes more. So, the conservator’s  first task is to clear the jungles from around the monuments and also from the body of the monuments . The roots of   the vegetation that grows over a monument is the greatest enemy. After cutting the stem of shrubs and trees growing on monuments, chemicals, such as, Ammonium Sulfamate or other commercial tree killers available in market in different trade names 2. 4D 9 Sodium Salt & Ester), Di- uron and Tu-fflon are injected in the stem. After removal of lower plants , such as , algae fungi & lichen, it is preferred that the stone surface of monuments facing outer atmosphere be treated with 2-3% solution zinc silco floride or sodium penta chlorophenate in water or other commercial algaecide or fungicide available in market in different trade names so as to avoid the re-occurrence are undertaken, the roots that penetrate into the body o a monument are taken out. After this major task is completed, other common restoration and conservation work starts. The silicon based technology is now gaining importance in the field of conservation of buildings and monuments. Hence, this technology is becoming more popular among the conservators in India. It may also be very useful to the conservation work in Assam .

It is attempted by the Archaeological Survey of India and also State Archaeoloy Department to clear the jungles of the ruined temples of the Pre-Ahom period and put the architectural members in the probable places as far as possible in some sites, such as, Bamuni Pahar, Singri, Pingalesvar, Madan Kamdev etc. Due to effects of great earthquake that occurred I the historical period, these fallen lofty temples have created heaps of ruins. But to reconstruct these completely ruined temples will be huge task which will involve both money and skilled manpower. If some other organizations, such as, UNESCO can come forward to help, it will be excellent.

Conclusion


Thus, architectural in the Pre-Ahom period were done in accordance with the Indo-Aryan formula with slight variation here and there. The Ahom architecture was also formulated in the same way i.e. in the Indo-Aryan style, but it was greatly influenced by the Islamic style. The Kachari architecture also was influenced by the Islamic style to a great extent.

The Chutia architecture, it appears, did not get chance to undergo Islamic influence. The Koch architecture borrowed many elements from Islamic formula. Likewise, both in the Pre-Ahom and in Ahom period, influence from South – East Asia did fall on the architecture of Assam. But compared to the influence from the West , the influence from the East appeared to be very less because of te communication and geographical factors. Proper conservation of these monuments is urgently necessary. Chemical treatment on these edifices in this humid zone should be priority basis. Gardening and beautification around the monuments should also be taken up simultaneously to attract more visitors. No other buildings near the monuments should be allowed to be constructed , nor, encroachment be allowed near these old structures.

1. Kamakshya

 The temple of kamakshya and the ancient name of Kamarupa is known well to the people of the country. It is a fact that the number of the devotees or daily visitors from outside Assam or North East India to this temple is much more than those from Assam.

The temple of Kamakshya is situated on the Nilachal hill on the bank of Brahmaputra . Located almost in the center of the greater Guwahati, the top of the Nilachal hill on which the shrine of the Bhuvaneswari is located, commands a panoramic view of the Guwahati City and the river Brahmaputra . Since the historical period there exist three paths connecting Kamakshya with the foot hills, one from the South , one from the West and third from the North. Now a motorable road links the foothill with the Kamakshya township and the Bhuvneswari temple located on the topmost point of the Nilachal hill.

The kamakshya does not appear in the ancient literature like the word ‘Pragjyotisa’, the oldest name of ‘Kamarupa’ Kingdom, which is known as Assam now. B. Kakoti says that ‘kamakshya’ is a word of non-sanskritic Austric meaning ‘ghost’ or ‘dead body’ . The temple of kamakshya is an important center of Saktism. Kamakshya is regarded as an important pithasthan. When Siva was moving around by taking the dead body of Sati, her private part 9Yoni) fell on the hill of Nilachal. Thereupon, Kamakshya, on the top of Nilachal hill came to be known as a pithasthan.

The present temple o Kamakshya was uilt during the powerful Koch dynasty. But before the Koch king, Naranarayana built the temple there existed some temples belonging to the temple there existed some temples belonging to the pre-Koch period. The ruins belonging to a period ranging from 5th to 12th century . The rock-cut inscription on the eastern slope of the Nilachal hill, known as Umachal rock – cut inscription of Surendra Varma plus other fragmentary architectural and inscriptional activities at Kamakshya in the Gupta period. Sculptural and architectural activities at the place did continue to C.12 century i.e., till the end of the pre-Ahom or Pro-Koch dynasties and that kamakshya was a center of saktism or tantrism is a fact , as the archaeological evidence shows.

The present standing temple of Kamakshya devi is the only example in the state with fully developed group plan having garbhagriha, an antarala and three mandapas, which are locally known as Chalanta , Pancharatha and Natamandir in North Indian style. The main temple was repaired or reconstructed many times in the past. The major and the final renovation and reconstruction of the Vimana was done by Koch King Naranarayana in 1562 AD. The Natamandir was later annexed to the original paln in 1759 AD by Ahom King Rajeswar Singha. The sunken garbhagriha of the temple houses no deity, but is a natural rock watered by an underground spring. The watered rock is revered as the general portion of the devi (sati, about which we have mentioned).

In addition to the main temple of Kamakshya with its tank, known as Saubhagya Knunda, there are number of Shrines datable to Koch-Ahom period, built on the pre-Ahom – Koch period ruins, and few tanks for storing water.

There is popular legend according to which naraka, the asura king of Pragjyotisa gave a proposal to Devi to marry her. Devi ( Sati, about which we have mentioned).

In addition to the main temple of Kamakshya with its tank, known as Saubhagya Knunda, there are number of shrines datable to Koch-Ahom period, built on the pre-Ahom-Koch period ruins, and few tanks for storing water.

There is popular legend according to which naraka, the asura King of Pragjyotisa gave a proposal to Devi to marry her. Devi Kamakshya, on the other hand , gave her consent on condition that Naraka must construct the temple at Kamakshya hill top and construct the path from the foothill to the hilltop and they must be completed within a night . Accordingly , Naraka with his huge force started the work of constructed and almost completed it. But before drawn, the Devi directed a cock to give his morning call, indicating the end of night. Accordingly, the cock did and Naraka was defeated in the pledged and falied to marry Devi. Naraka later killed the cock in the morning , at a place known as Kukurakata 9kukra=cock, kata = to cut)

2. Hayagriv Madhav temple, Hajo

The temple is located on a hillock from where it command a panoramic view. Like Kamakshya this Hayagriv Madhava temple enshrining lord Visnu and a few more deities, was also the product of the architects of the Koch period . This temple was re-built by koch King Raghudev, son of the illustrious Koch general Chilarai in 1583 AD under the supervision of Shridhara, an architect. The plan of the temple consists of garbhagriha, antaala and mandapa. The Vimana of the temple bears the prominent characteristic feature of rekha-deul.

The temple was rebuilt by using earlier stone blocks. The jangha of the temple is decorated with stone sculptures representing different hindu divinities. The adhisathana or he pabhaga of the temple possibly stood at the time of reconstruction of the pre-Ahom period temple once existed there. The gajathara motif at the adhisthana, like that that if famous monolithic kailas temple at Ellora, is well preserved. The upper portion of the temple is brick built.

Large number of Buddhists comes to visit this temple claimin that the main deity of the temple enshrined in garbhagriha is of Lord Buddha. But the local people from the past take it as the image of Hayagriva, an incarnation of Visnu . The image o Hayagriva, an incarnation of Visnu. The image is kept always under the cover of a cloth and the eyeballs of the god are made of gold, which can be seen.


3. Maghnowa temple, near Dhalpur, in Lakhimpur District.

This was constructed during the rule of Ahom king Pratap Singha 91603-1641 AD). The temple , however, does not possess a data of construction . The plan of the temple is very simple consisting of Vimana, antarala and mandapa. The exterior walls are decorated with sculptures and floral designs. The sikhara is plain. This brick built temple. The village Maghnowa, however, it appears to be included in the Chutia Kingdom.

4 Siva dol, Sivasagar

 The gem of the Ahom architecture is the Sivadol of Sivasagar enshrining a Sivalinga flanked y two temples i.e. Visnu dol and Devi dol. This temple is roughly 40 meters high and is tallest now in existence in the North-east India. Up to the sprinting level it is built of stone and thereafter bricks have been used’. The ground plan of the temple is common . It consists of grabhagriha, antarala and a mandapa. A cave made of brass-matel in laid with gold surmounts the pinnacle of the temple. The engineering skill decorative finishing and graceful proportion with which this monument was executed has made this majestic and lofty temple unique in architectural achievements of the Ahom period.

The temple was built by the queen Ambika Dev (18th century)

5. Visnu dol , Sivasagar

This monument and the Devi-dol flank the lofty Siva dol on the bank of the vast tank Sivasagar. The deity of the temple is Visnu. This temple compares well with the Visnu dol at Gaurisagar, in the proximity of Sivasagar. But it is superior in decoration externally . This brick built temple was built during the reign of Ahom King Siva Singha under the direction of his queen Ambika Devi (18th century).

“ The most attractive part of this temple is its mastaka” , which is a multi-tiered chatra the shape of which became ‘standard type for the latter Ahom temples’.
 
6. Na-pukhuri dol (Rudrasagar dol near Rudrasagar)

Ahom King Lakshmi Singha in 1773 AD constructed this temple . The monument can be seen from the Gauhati – Sivasagar road to the right while approaching Joysagar. Approximately 20 metres high this temple is called Rekha Deul (a towered sanctuary with vertical salients). Once this monuments was badly attacked by vegetations. Thanks to the department of Archaeology , Govt. of Assam for their removal and batter upkeep.


7. Joydol, Joysagar, greater Sivasagar

This temple is also called kesavnarayanadol or Visnu Dol. It is the loftiest temple developed fully consisting of Vimana, antarala and two mandaps. The exterior of the sikhara is decorated with square design produced by vertically and horizontally drawn lines, as we see in the case of Visnu dol at Sivasagar. The King Rudra Singha , (18th century), who gave more emphasis on art and architecture in Assam and whose contribution was unparallel and whose tradition was followed by the later kings, erected this beautiful temple.

8. Rang-ghar, Joysagar, in greater Sivasagar


It is a secular monument. This two storeyed brick built amphitheater was built during the ule of the Ahom King Pramatta Singha in 18th Century. From this two storeyed building royal family members used to enjoy various games and festivals. The Talatalghar i.e. royal for-places, originally seven storied where royal family members and armed were stationed is very near to rang-ghar. Even now maintaining the old tradition in the open courtyard of Rang-ghar at the spring time festival 9Bihu) people enjoy bull fight, buffalo fight, cock fight etc. There was no settlement around Talatal and Rangghar. But now lots of residential buildings have come up here.


9. Sihesvar temple, Soalkuchi

In 1729 AD , the Siddesvar temple at Soalkuchi was rebuilt under the royal patronage during the reign of Ahom King Siva Singha. About 14 meters in height this temple must have been rebuilt on a ruined stone built in pre-Ahom temple datable to C.10th-11th century . The plinth of the pre-Ahom temple was stone built over which the present brick built temple stands . there are two big sized stone images of Mahisamardini and Surya stuck into the walls that decorate the exterior of the temple belong to the pre-Ahom period 910th –11th Century) and have no connection with the present temple, which enshrines a Sivalinga.

10. Neghreting dol, dergaon

This is a Siva temple built during the reign of Ahom King Rajeswar Singha (1751-1769 AD) . This is one of the finest examples of the Ahom architecture. This I the only example of panchayatana temple in the entire State of Assam . The plan of the temple consists o five chambers. The main Viman in panchartha rekha deul. Four smaller temples of equal size are brought out from the main Viman diagonally,

The enshrined Sivalinga is also called banalinga. The temple is located on a hillock about 2 KM. North of the Guwahati – Dibugarh High way near badulipara in Golaghat district.

11. Kareng ghar, Gargaon , near Nazira

It is a secular work like Rang ghar and talatal Ghar. This brick built place like Talatalghar was originally was seven storeyed, built during the reign of Ahom King Rajesvar Singha (18th Century) . When Gargaon was the capital of the Ahom Kings. It was used as royal place. The building is square in size and consists of some tiers having rooms. The style this architectural work, however, is extremely uncommon in the North East. It has some resemblance with the Pagoda of Burma. As the Ahoms came from the upper Burma and belonged to the great Tai race, who entered the Brahmaputra valley by the beginning of the 13th century , the Pagoda influence can be seen in this monument. Also the style can be seen in the Guruasana of any Vaisnava satra of Assam where the sacred Bhagavat is kept with reverence.


12. Devi dol , Sivasagar

The most attraction of the town of Sivasagar is the three majestic temples, built on the east bank o the vast Sivasagar tank, - Sivadol, Visnudol and Devidol built during the perio of Ahom king Siva Singha (18th century) . The Sikhara of this temple is patterned after the Sikhara of the Devidol at Gauri Sagar, it is better in execution , graceful in proportion and balanced in decorative treatment .’ This brick built temple is not , however, constructed over any ruins of pre-Ahom temple. The temple is dedicated to Devi Durga.


13. Vasudev dol, Kalabari

According to the local tradition this temple was constructed during the period of Sulikpha alias Lora Raja (1679-1681 AD) one of the Ahom Kings. The temple is known as Vasudev dol situated in the north bank of the river brahmaputra near kalabari. The style of the temple is of rekhadeol type. The architectural style as well as huge structure of the temple led us to date it in a period after Rudra Singha 91696-1714 AD). When Ahom architecture marked remarkable progress. 
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